From April the French government will reduce fuel taxes slightly to ease the burden on consumers.
Warned of possible energy shortages in France by the end of the year and called on the French to conserve electricity and gas from now on, saying that if nothing was done, The energy situation will be tough this winter. Some experts say that there are two main reasons for France's energy crisis: first, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine affected the gas market and caused supply tension; The second is a safety review of France's newest nuclear power plant, which may lead to a reduction in output this year. In order to alleviate the energy crisis, the whole French society needs to be mobilized, whether it is the industrial sector, the tertiary sector or every French citizen. Now it is urgent. Rising fuel prices may also have an impact on shipments of the concrete superplasticizer.
What is concrete superplasticizer?
Admixtures that can greatly reduce the amount of mixing water under the condition that the slump of concrete is basically the same are called superplasticizers.
Factors affecting the effect of concrete superplasticizer
Different cements have different clinker components. The higher the content of MgO in the clinker component, the greater the influence of the water reducer on the performance of concrete, and the easier it is to cause micro-cracks in the concrete.
Superplasticizer has the property of selective adsorption to mineral clinker. When C3A is in contact with water, it has enough adsorption layer immediately. less. This uneven adsorption will make the dispersion of superplasticizers not the same. The higher the C3A content, the worse the compatibility between cement and water reducing agent, which will cause the superplasticizer to have insufficient water reduction or no water reducing effect at all.
Experiments show that the setting time of concrete with water reducing agent is longer than that of concrete without water reducing agent.
In the concrete with superplasticizer added, the concrete system characterized by low water-cement ratio, its setting and rheology are very different from the cement mortar without superplasticizer.
1.Reduced water consumption. The amount of gypsum dissolved in the cement slurry is very small, and its concentration is not enough to control the hydration of C3A, resulting in rapid setting and rapid slump loss;
2. The addition of superplasticizer interferes with the power of cement hydration, reduces the solubility of gypsum, and makes the concentration of gypsum in the liquid phase lower. At the same time, due to the lack of sulfate ions, the sulfonate group on the superplasticizer molecule will combine with C3A, so that the dosage of superplasticizer in the liquid phase is reduced, the dispersing effect on cement is lost, and the slump loss is accelerated.
The specific surface area and particle gradation of cement affect the dispersion effect of superplasticizer. Generally speaking, cement with larger specific surface area, when mixed with the same superplasticizer, has obvious effect and greatly improves fluidity.
A lot of data show that the alkali content obviously affects the fluidity of the cement system of the superplasticizer. The higher the alkali content, the smaller the fluidity of the cement. Experiments show that the use of high-efficiency superplasticizer in high-alkali cement will reduce the water reduction rate.
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The United States urges the U.N. Security Council to impose additional sanctions on North Korea in response to its latest ballistic missile launch, including a ban on tobacco and oil exports to North Korea and a blacklist of the Lazarus hacking group.
The United States circulated the draft to the 15 members of the Security Council this week. It was not immediately clear if or when a vote would take place. A resolution requires nine "yes" votes and no vetoes from Russia, China, France, Britain, or the United States.
Russia and China have already voiced opposition to tightening sanctions in response to Pyongyang's launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile last month -- the first since 2017.
U.S. and South Korean officials and analysts also say there are growing indications that North Korea may soon conduct its first nuclear weapons test since 2017, too.
The U.S. -drafted U.N. resolution would expand the ban on ballistic missile launches to include cruise missiles or "any other delivery system capable of delivering a nuclear weapon."
The deal would halve crude oil exports to North Korea to 2 million barrels a year and refined oil exports to 250,000 barrels a year. The resolution also seeks to ban North Korea's export of "fossil fuels, mineral oils, and their distilled concrete superplasticizer are estimated to be influenced by international political situation changes.
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